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Ingraham, J. H. (Joseph Holt), 1809-1860 [1859], The pillar of fire, or, Israel in bondage. (Pudney & Russell [and] H. Dayton, New York) [word count] [eaf611T].
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Front matter Covers, Edges and Spine

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Daniel F. Rabey,
29 Mayer St.,
B'klyn, N.Y.

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Hic Fructus Virtutis; Clifton Waller Barrett [figure description] Free Endpaper with Bookplate: heraldry figure with a green tree on top and shield below. There is a small gray shield hanging from the branches of the tree, with three blue figures on that small shield. The tree stands on a base of gray and black intertwined bars, referred to as a wreath in heraldic terms. Below the tree is a larger shield, with a black background, and with three gray, diagonal stripes across it; these diagonal stripes are referred to as bends in heraldic terms. There are three gold leaves in line, end-to-end, down the middle of the center stripe (or bend), with green veins in the leaves. Note that the colors to which this description refers appear in some renderings of this bookplate; however, some renderings may appear instead in black, white and gray tones.[end figure description]

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THE FINDING OF MOSES. [figure description] Illustration page. Image of two women and a young boy by the side of a river. One woman is kneeling and pulling a basket with a baby in it from the river.[end figure description]

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Title Page THE
Israel in Bondage.


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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1850,
In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern
District of New York.

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Dedication TO

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This Book


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The idea of illustrating scenes of that period of the history of
Egypt in which the Israelites were held in bondage by her
kings, and presenting it from a point of view outside of the
Mosaic narrative, yet strictly harmonizing therewith, occurred to
the writer some years ago.

In view of his object, he has carefully studied the history and
chronology of Egypt, and endeavored to inform his mind upon
the manners, customs, laws, religion, and polity of the ancient
Egyptians, so far as to aid him in an intelligent and practical
execution of his work.

The difficulties which the question of dynasty, and of individual
reigns have presented, will be understood by the Egyptian
student. Whatsoever chronology or theory the author
might finally decide upon, he saw would be open to the objections
of adherents to the opposite school.

After a thorough examination of the subject of the dynasties,
the author has followed, chiefly, the chronology and theory of
Nolan and Seyffarth, whose opinions are sustained by the ablest

But this work is by no means a “Book on Egypt.” It professes
to have nothing more to do with Egyptian antiquities,
mythology, chronology, and history, than these naturally assemble
about his subject, which is, mainly, “The Bondage and Deliverance
of the Children of Israel from the Land of Egypt.”

The plan upon which the author has constructed his work is

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similar to that of “The Prince of the House of David;” viz.,
by presenting the scenes and events he would describe, through
a series of letters, alleged to be written by one who is supposed
to witness with his own eyes what he is made to place before
those of the reader.

As in “The Prince of the House of David,” a young Jewish
maiden is supposed to witness many of the most remarkable
scenes in the human life of the Lord Jesus, and to write of them
to her father in Egypt, so in the present work a young prince of
Phœnicia is made the medium of communication between the
author and his reader.

This prince, Sesostris, the son of the king and queen of
Phœnicia, upon reaching the age of eight-and-twenty, prepares
to go into Egypt, for the purpose of studying the laws and arts,
religion and government of that country, which, at this period,
was the most powerful kingdom of the earth. Mistress of wisdom,
learning, and letters, she drew to her brilliant court youths,
nobles, philosophers, and travellers of all lands; as in later centuries,
even in her decadence, Greece sent her scholars there to
be perfected in the sciences and philosophies of her academies.

Young Sesostris takes leave of his mother, now a widowed
queen, and embarks in the royal galley at the marble pier of the
palace of the Isle of Tyre. He bears letters to Amense, the
queen of Egypt, commending him to her courtesy.

Between Egypt and Phœnicia existed bonds, not only of
friendly alliance, but of relationship. But few centuries had
passed since a king of Phœnicia, at the head of a vast army of
Syrians, invaded Egypt, and taking Memphis, set up a foreign
throne in the valley of the Nile.

Under this dynasty of conquerors, Joseph ruled in Egypt, and
Jacob dwelt; for, being Syrians, these new Pharaohs regarded
with partiality the descendants of Abraham, who was also “a

But after the death of Joseph, not many years elapsed ere the

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Theban kings of Upper Egypt invaded the Memphitic realm of
the Nile, and, overturning the power of this foreign dynasty,
friendly to the sons of Israel, re-established the native Egyptian
monarchy, “which knew not Joseph,” nor recognized the
descendants of Abraham dwelling in the land. On the contrary
looking upon them as of similar lincage with the expelled Syrian
or Assyrian invaders, as they were equally called, the new monarch
and conqueror, Amosis, at once placed them in subjection,
and oppressed them with a bitter bondage.

This new Egyptian monarchy, under Pharaoh-Amosis, came
into power again, some years after the death of Joseph, during
which period the children of Israel had increased to a great
people. For the space of seventy years their oppression was
continued by successive kings, until, under Amenophis I. (the
father of Amense, “Pharaoh's daughter”), the alarming increase
of the numbers of the Hebrews, led this monarch to take harsher
measures with them, “for the more they afflicted them, the
more they multiplied and grew.”* Fearing for the stability of
his kingdom, if they should rise upon their taskmasters, and
remembering the Syrian shepherd-kings, who had so lately ruled
Egypt, he issued the command for the destruction of all their
male children, as soon as born!

At the time of the promulgation of this sanguinary edict,
Amense was a young princess, to whose feet the little ark, containing
the infant Moses, God-directed, came.

The theory of Egyptian chronology which we have decided
to follow, represents this princess as the Queen of Egypt, at the
time when we present the Prince Sesostris of Tyre to the reader.
Under her wise rule, Egypt had attained the culmination of its
glory and power. Her father, having died, after reigning
twenty-two years, she began her brilliant reign when Moses was
twelve years of age—B. C. about 1560. She had been upon

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the throne twenty-one years, when the Prince Sesostris prepares
to visit her court.

We will not longer delay presenting the reader to the Letters
of Prince Sesostris, trusting that this feeble attempt to illustrate
one of the most interesting periods of human history, as it might
have appeared to a stranger in Egypt, may lead to a study of
the Old Testament by many who are unfamiliar with its pages;
and also show how, in his dealings with Pharaoh, God wielded
not merely an arbitrary power, but that, in all the “mighty
works” He did, He was striking at Egypt's gods, and asserting
His own Divinity, as the Only Living and True God, “besides
Whom there is none else.”

The Author. Holly Springs, Mississippi,
Jan. 1, 1859.
Note.—The Egyptian scholar, the critic, and the Biblical student
are referred to the “Concluding Essay by the Author,” in the Appendix,
at the close of the volume.

* Exodus ii.

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On, the City of the Sun—Grandeur of Egypt—Emotions at the
sight of its wonders of art and scenes of beauty—The Queen of
the ancient house of Pharaoh—Her son, Prince Remeses (Moses)—
Tyre, and its traffic with distant lands—Damascus—Voyage from
Tyre to Pelusium—Scene at the departure of the fleet—The Nile—
Its encroachments—First view of Egypt—Meeting with Egyptian
war-ship—Invitation to visit the Court of Queen Amense—Description
of Egyptian war-ship—Banquet on the Admiral's ship—Singular
custom—Panorama of the Nile—pp. 25—38.

Love for native land—Avenue of temples and palaces—Sublime
temple of the Sun—Emblem of Osiris—Artificial canal—Gardens and
circular lake—Gathering of philosophers and scholars—Obelisks—
Message from Queen Amense—Great temple of Osiris—Splendid
approach to the City of the Sun—Row of sphinxos—Osiris and
lsis—Colossi—An Arabian charger—Magnificent scene—Spectacle
of architectural grandeur—Beautiful palace—Religious notions of
the Egyptians—Personal appearance of the Lord-prince Remeses
(Moses)—View of the Desert—Hebrew laborers—Interview with
Remeses—pp. 39—52.

Climate of Egypt—Eternal sunshine and crystalline atmosphere—
Costume of the Egyptian prince—Hieroglyphic writing—Legend

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of the Obelisk of Mitres—More of the personal appearance of
Remeses (Moses)—The Hebrew prince Abram (the Patriarch)—His
personal appearance—His tomb—Interior of Egyptian palace—
Egyptian Mythology—Mnevis, the sacred ox—Legend of Osiris—
Pantheism—Apis, or the sacred bull—Out-of-door life at midday—
Hebrews, under their taskmasters, in the burning sun—Prospect
from the terrace of the palace—Isle of Rhoda, in the Nile—
pp. 53—66.

Palace of Remeses—Invitation to meet the Queen—Costume of a
prince of Tyre—Egyptian chariots and horses—Nubian charioteer—
Escort of the Queen's body-guard—Pleasure chariots—The Queen
in her chariot—Beautiful lake—Sphinxes—Royal palace described—
The throne-room—The throne-chair of ivory—Its footsfool and
canopy—Assembly of military princes—Magnificent attire, and
splendid appearance of Remeses (Moses)—Ceremony of presentation
to the Queen—Queen Amense; her appearance and costume—
Termination of the audience—pp. 67—80.

Egyptian magnificence—Egyptian architecture—Osiride pillars—
Vastness of objects—Avenue of Sphinxes—Temple of the god
Horus—The emblem of Hor-hat—Court of Colonnades—Grand
hall—Rich colors in architecture—Sculpture—Bass-reliefs—Splendid
temple—Chamber of art and beauty—Magnificent review of the
army of four thousand chariots of iron—A warrior-prince in his
war-chariot—Description of war-chariot—Ethiopian slaves—Bewildering
spectacle—Military and civil homage to the Queen—The
Lord of Uz (Job) described—Ceremonies preparatory to a royal
banquet—The banquet—Costly wine-goblets—Arabian dancinggirls—
Jugglers—Guests overcome by wine—pp. 81—98.

Visit from Prince Remeses (Moses)—Great gate of the city—

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Phalanx of dark Libyan soldiers—Varied accomplishments of
Remeses—Avenue of gardens, villas, and lakes—Temples in circular
lakes—Egyptian field-laborers—Hebrew brick-makers—Description
of this “mysterious” race—Account of the mode of their toil—
Cruelty of their taskmasters—Emotions of pity at the sight of their
sufferings—The lash!—Beautiful Hebrew girls—Dwellings of brick-makers—
Joseph—Scene at the “Fountain of Strangers”—Distant
view of the City of the Sun—Of Raamses—Of the pyramids—Of
the illimitable desert—Wounded Hebrew youth at the Fountain of
Strangers—Majestic old Hebrew beaten by taskmasters—Touching
scene—pp. 99—114.

Interview with the venerable Ben Isaac at the Well of the
Strangers—Raamses, the Treasure-city—Joseph's granary—Exquisite
temple of Apis—Beautiful young Hebrew girl pursued by the
taskmaster—Her rescue and story—The punishment of the task-master—
Intolerable burdens of the Hebrews—Garden of Flowers
for the use of the temple of Apis—Account of the Syrian prince
Abram (Abraham)—Of Melchisedec—Of the Hyksos, or Shepherd-Kings—
Their conquest of Egypt—The Princess Sara (wife of Abraham)—
Prince Jacob (the Patriarch) and his twelve sons—Joseph—
Pharaoh's dream—Elevation of Joseph—Monuments of his power—
pp. 115—129.

Eagles of prey—Account of the Hebrews—Imposing funeral of
the Patriarch Jacob—His powerful and able government—Overthrow
of the dynasty of the Shepherd-Kings—Dynasty of the
Thebaïd—Flourishing condition of the Hebrews in the and of
Goshen, under the government of Joseph—Aspiration after the
One God—Reduction of the Hebrews to servitude—Their rapid
and miraculous increase—The massacre of their male infants—
Courageous affection of the Hebrew mothers—Egyptian nurses
sympathize with them—Infants hid—Queen Amense's humanity—
Courage and wisdom of many of the Hebrews—Exciting ride past

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Joseph's ruined palace—Jacob's Well—The plain of the Hebrew
brick-makers—Death of a Hebrew under his taskmasters—Sculptured
obelisk of Queen Amense—Emotions of Syrian painters at
sight of their prince—pp. 130—144.

Reflections on the degradation of the Hebrews—Hebrew pages
and maidens in the service of Egyptian nobles—Amram, the palace
gardener—Contrast between the physiognomy of the Egyptians and
Hebrews—Remarkable likeness of Prince Remeses to the Israelites—
Description of the Lord-prince Mœris—He seeks a quarrel
with Remeses—Illness of Queen Amense—Filial devotion of Remeses—
Magnificent prospect of the Nile, the Plain of the Pyramids,
the City of the Sun, Jizeh and Memphis—Myriads of human beings
at labor—Naval review and sham-battle—Exciting scene of contending
thousands—pp. 145—157.

Recovery of Queen Amense—Gropings after the True God—
Pleasure-galley of the Nile—Voluptuous ease—River chant—Phœ
nician Mythology and Learning—Procession of the Dead—Tradition
of the universal Deluge and of Noe-menes (Noah)—Myths of
Ammon, and of Belus the Warrior-god and Founder of Babylon—
Nimrod's temple—Baalbec—Worship of the Sun—Myths of Apis,
Horus, Adonis, and Io—Magnificent worship of Osiris and Isis—
Mysteries of the temple of Tyre—Baal-phegor—Pillars of the West—
Marvels of foreign lands, and islands of wonderful beauty—Men
formed like monkeys—The edge of the world—A sea-storm—Gulf
down which the full sea plunges—Legends of the form of the
Earth; of its foundation; of its motion through space—pp. 158—

The beautiful Isle of Rhoda—Prince Mœris and his favorite lion—
Refinement of Egyptians—Polite observances at the reception of

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visitors—Parting between Queen Amense and Remeses—Military
emblems—Magnificent display of the Egyptian “tented hosts”—
Striking religious and military display of the army—Columns
formed of trophies taken in battle—The chief priest of Mars—His
gorgeous attire and imposing ceremonies—Gigantic statue of Mars,
in full armor—Offerings of the soldiers—Invocation by the High-priest—
Libations for the army—Clouds of incense—Appearance
of the beautiful daughters of the priest—The musical sistrum—
Sacred offices in the temple filled by women—The Virgins of the
Sun—Social position of Egyptian women—Thrilling martial hymn
chaunted by the priests, the army, and the maiden—Sacrifice—
Remeses reviews the army—Ethiopia—Description of an Egyptian
army; its tactics and weapons—The nations composing it—
pp. 173—190.

Immense military force of Egypt—Sublime sunrise—Morning
hymn—Gala of the resurrection of Osiris—Festivals to the gods—
Visit to the Queen—Glimpse of dark-eyed Egyptian girls—Their
tasteful dress—Life, manners, and customs of high-born Egyptian
ladies—Their high social estimation—Egyptians can have but one
wife—Occupations of ladies—Classifications of Egyptian society—
The habitations of the Egyptians—Family customs and gatherings—
House of the Admiral Pathromenes—Home-life of the Egyptians—
pp. 191—208.

Ancient worship of the gods on Libanus—Natural temples—
Legend of the weeping for Tammuz—Unsatisfactory nature of the
worship of idols—More aspirations and gropings after the true
God—Where is the Infinite?—There can be but one God!—His
nature—Body-guard rowers of Prince Remeses—Their captain—
Nubian slaves—Great quay, or landing-mart of Memphis—Merchants
from all parts of the world—Street lined with temples—
Avenue of statues and columns—Memphis—Gradual change of the
true religion into idolatry—The four deified bulls of Egypt—Sacred
birds, serpents, scorpions, vegetables, and monsters—pp. 209—225.

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Majestic temple of the sacred bull, Apis—Tyrian mariner torn to
pieces by the Egyptians for ignorantly killing a sacred cat—Imposing
worship of the deified bull—Description of the sacred animal—
Costly offerings at his shrine—An omen!—Tasteful palace of the
hierarch of the temple—Transmigration of souls—Brute incarnation
of deity—Tradition concerning Osiris—Foreshadowing of the
coming of the Invisible upon earth in human form—Lamentations
upon the death of a deified bull—His obsequies—Pomp and rejoicings
over a new god, Apis—Mausoleum of the Serapis—Sarcophagi—
The Sarapeum—The Lady Nelisa—Beautiful daughter of the
priest of Mars—The Lake of the Dead—Embalmers and their art—
Customs attending death and embalmment—Funeral procession of
Rathmes, “lord of the royal gardens”—The venerable head-gardener,
Amram—The baris, or sacred boat—pp. 226—244.

Conclusion of funeral ceremonies of the lord of the royal gardens—
The Sacred Way—Processions of mourners—Avenue to the
tombs—The “dead-life” of the Egyptians—Awful ceremony of the
judgment of the dead—Burial of the unworthy dead prohibited—
False accusers stoned away—Myth as to the state of the soul after
death—Metempsychosis—The mystery of the tribunal of Osiris—
Reception of the justified soul into the celestial kingdom—Doom of
the reprobate soul—Monkeys, emblems of the god Thoth—The gate
of the pyramids—Colossal Andro-sphinx, or Watcher before the
pyramids—Beautiful temple of Osiris—The twin pyramids, Cheops
and Chephres—pp. 245—261.

Continuation of description of the Pyramids—Colossal monolith
of Horus—Perilous ascent of Cheops—Prospect from a resting-place
upon the pyramid, four hundred feet in air—A prince of Midian
falls from Chephres—Magnificent view from the top of Cheops, six
hundred feet in air—Tombs of kings—The Giants before the Flood

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founders of the great pyramids—Ancient appearance of pyramids—
Greater duration of human life—The third pyramid built by Amun,
son of Noah—Egyptian tradition of Noah and his sons—Entombment
of Noah in Cheops, and the mourning of the Nations—Verdant
plain of the Nile—The desolation of the Desert—Jizeh—
Raamses and Pythom, the treasure-cities—The smiling land of
Goshen—Prophecy of an Unknown World, in the West—The sacred
papyri—Descent of the pyramid—Luxora, the beautiful daughter
of the high-priest—Her legend of the Emerald Table of Hermes—
Osiria—pp. 262—276.

The lovely Osiria's legend of King Saurid—Stately Hebrew
woman—Tradition of the construction of the larger pyramid—Its
foundations—Its gates—Its covering of silk—Its treasure-chambers
and magical guardians of stone and agate—Miriam, the papyrus-copier—
Her striking resemblance to Prince Remeses—The pyramid
penetrated by a Phœnician conqueror—Discovery of treasures—
Mighty sarcophagus of the dead monarch of two worlds, Noah
Chamber of the precession of the equinoxes—Hall of the Universe—
Pyramids built before the Deluge—Configuration of the seven
planets as at the Creation—Astrology—Enigma of the Phœnix—
The riddle solved—Nelisa—Interview with the stately Miriam in the
Hall of Books—pp. 277—293.

Tidings from Prince Remeses and the army—Antediluvian origin
of the pyramids—The barbaric King of Ethiopia, Occhoris—His
body-guard of Bellardines—His sacrilege in the temple of the
sacred bull at Thebes—Pious vengeance of the people—Visit of
Remeses to the tomb of his father—Remarkable conversation with
Miriam, the papyrus-copier—Description of Miriam—Ben Isaac and
the lad Israel—Contempt of the Egyptians for Israel—Religious and
political degradation of the Hebrews—Miriam declares the mystery
of the God of her fathers—Her denunciation of idol-worship—
Miriam's occupation—The winged asps—Interview with the Prince

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of Uz, Ra-Iub (Job)—Job speaks of the Almighty!—Seems inspired
of God—Tradition of a Day's-man, or mediator—Job convinces
Sesostris that there is but one God—pp. 294—313.

Intelligence from Ethiopia—Remeses a conqueror—Great spoils—
He enters Memphis in triumphal array—His filial piety—The captive
Ethiopian king—Victorious army of one hundred thousand
men in triumphal procession—The Prince of Egypt in his war-chariot—
Column of twelve thousand Ethiopian captives—Description
of the bands of captives, and their treatment—Invocation of
the victors in the great temple of Pthah—Distinction between
captives taken in war and the Hebrews—pp. 314—330.

Delightful climate—Indolence and leisure by day—Spirit of life
and enjoyment reigns at night—Galley of a noble designedly runs
down a small baris—Handsome Hebrew—Another startling resemblance
to Prince Remeses!—The lad Israel again—Miriam, the
papyrus-copier, the sister of the handsome Hebrew—What he saw,
in boyhood, beside the Nile—His infant brother committed to the
river—Subterranean chambers for casting images of the gods—The
Hebrew gives an account of his people and his God—He mourns
the oppression of his race—pp. 331—346.

Thirty-fifth birth-day of Prince Remeses—Queen Amense proposes
to abdicate in his favor—The Hebrew page, Israel—Melancholy
of the Queen—Prince Mœris—Moving interview between the
Queen and Remeses—He declines the throne of Egypt—A secret!—
Prince Mœris seeks the ruin of Remeses—A bribe!—Suspicion!—
Terrible agitation of the Queen—Attempt of Mœris to poison
Amense at a banquet—Another bribe—A mystery!—Remeses consents
to accept the sceptre—pp. 347—363.

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Remeses prepares for his coronation by an initiation into the
mysteries of the temple—Power and influence of Egyptian priesthood—
Daily public duties of the Queen—Her attire—Her bathing
and dressing rooms—Skilful adornment of their hair by Egyptian
ladies—The Queen acts as chief priestess—Her delightful hospitalities—
Beautiful trait of character—Proposed succession of Remeses—
Solemn vigil, and other ceremonies of initiation—Remeses shut
out from the world in the gloom of the mysterious temple—Israelisis
with a message from the Queen—The Celestial Sea—A courier
from Mœris—Great distress and singular manner of the Queen—A
terrible secret—An impatient follower—pp. 364—380

Revelations—Letter from Mœris—His haughty demand—Is Remeses
the son of Pharaoh's Daughter?—Another letter and another
haughty demand from Mœris—Still another—A doubt!—An investigation—
Amense never a mother!—Her descent to the Nile to
bathe—The little ark of basket-work and beautiful child—The
princess adopts it—A threat!—The Queen unfolds the terrible
secret—Her agony of fear—Her touching story of the discovery of
the infant Remeses—She gains resolution and defies Mœris—Remeses
a Hebrew!—pp. 381—397

Mournful reflections—Sacred poem by Remeses, being scenes in
the life of Job—Remeses discovers all—A sirocco of the soul—He
narrates the mysterious scenes of his initiation—Startling spectacles—
Overwhelming displays of enchantment and magic—Mysterious
journey beneath the pyramids—Labyrinthine catacomb—
March of Time through the heavens—Remeses alone beside the
altar—Amense not his mother!—His vision in the dark chamber of
the pyramids—The massacre of the Hebrew infants—Scene in the
Hebrew hut—The mother and child—The babe committed to the
Nile—The little maid—The beautiful lady, Pharaoh's Daughter—
The Hebrew nurse—The image-caster—pp. 398—414

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Continuation of vision of Remeses—Himself the child of his
vision—Mysterious voices in the vaulted chamber of the pyramid—
Mocking eyes—He flees—Tender interview between the Queen and
Remeses—He narrates his vision—The secret fully unveiled—Discovery
of a father, mother, brother, sister—Illness of the Queen—
She assembles the councils of the nation—Remeses renounces the
throne—Amense adopts Mœris—Her death—Amram—The mother
of Remeses—Miriam—Aaron—Egypt in mourning—Remeses assumes
his Hebrew name, Moses—Arts of magicians and sorcevers—
pp. 415—431.


Moses beholds the thousands of his countrymen under the lash
of the taskmasters—A prophecy—Visits Tyre and is cordially received
by Queen Epiphia—Tyre—Damascus—He meets the venerable
Prince of Uz (Job)—Nuptials of Sesostris—pp. 432—435.

Defeat of the King of Cyprus by Sesostris—Moses in Syria—He
journeys to sit at the feet of Job—Cruelty of Pharaoh (Mœris)—
The Lake Amense—pp. 436—438.

Moses visits Job—The wisdom of Job—His wealth and power—
Moses writes his life—Job leads Moses to the knowledge of the
true God—pp. 439—441.

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Mœris increases the burdens of the Hebrews—Tradition as to
the term of their servitude—Nearly accomplished—Moses, in Syria,
yearns to be with his brethren in Egypt—pp. 442—444.

Moses determines to visit Egypt—Receives from Job the history
of the Creation—Job's piety and his favor with God—Prayer
the path to the throne of God—King Sesostris and Queen Thamonda—
Israelisis—pp. 445—448.

Moses departs for Egypt—The Illimitable Sea—Reflections upon
the infinity of God—A storm—Despair of passengers—Their gods
unavailing to save—Moses invokes the true God—The storm ceases—
The crowd offer divine honors to Moses—His anger at their
sacrilege—He arrives in Egypt—Is in the bosom of his family—
Oppression of the Hebrews—Their miraculous increase—Tradition
of God's revelation of Himself to Abram—A miracle!—God's
command to Abraham—His obedience—God's promise—The fulness
of time at hand—Woman of salt—City of Salem—Moses
strives to arouse the Hebrews—He is doubted and discredited—
pp. 449—461.

Moses, in disguise, sees King Mœris amid his chief captains—
Terrible cruelties inflicted upon the Hebrews—Taskmaster pursues a
Hebrew youth, to kill him—Moses slays the taskmaster—Comes
upon two Hebrews in altercation—He rebukes them—They threaten
to expose him to Pharaoh for slaying the Egyptian—Prophetic inspiration
of Amram, the father of Moses—Moses flees from Egypt—
pp. 462—467.

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The young prince visits Egypt—The acts of the Egyptian kings—
The reign of Mœris—He constructs an immense lake—Inauguration
of a temple—Splendid spectacle of idol-worship—Plain of
the Mummies—Enlargement of Memphis—Discovery of treasures
beneath the Sphinx before Chephres—The captive King Occhoris—
Increase of Hebrews—Character of the reigning Pharaoh—His
cruelty to the Hebrews—Good feeling between Hebrew and Egyptian
women—Intelligence of the long-absent Remeses (Moses)—pp.

A caravan from Ezion-geber—Its governor a Midianite—Prince
Jethro—Abram—Moses in Midian—The young prince determines
to accompany the caravan into Midian, and to seek Moses—pp.

Moses to his old friend Sesostris—Account of his mode of life—
His meditations upon the oppression of his nation, and upon the
character of their predicted Deliverer—Is inspired to write a narrative
of the Creation of the World—pp. 482—484.

Journey across the desert—Mount Horeb—Moses, standing upon
a mountain-rock—Affecting interview—Grotto of Moses—His wife
and sons—Story of his rescue of the daughters of Jethro at the
well—His sublime teachings—Will he be the Deliverer?—View
from Mount Horeb—Aaron—Miriam—pp. 485—490.

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Moses leads his flock to a secluded valley—Wonderful appearance
of the Burning Bush—Astonishment of the shepherds—The Voice
in the midst of the fire—God reveals Himself to Moses, and commissions
him to lead forth the people—The humility of Moses—His
staff converted into a living serpent—The leprous hand—Moses
hesitates—The Lord rebukes him, and the flame in the bush shoots
fiery tongues—Aaron to be the mouth-piece of the Lord—Miraculously
advised, Aaron comes to Moses—Moses converts his staff
into a serpent, before Aaron—He obtains the consent of Jethro to
his departure from Midian—Moses in Egypt—Sends messengers to
summon the elders of Israel to meet him at Jacob's well—Pharaoh's
cruel designs against the Hebrews—pp. 491—503.

Midnight meeting of the elders of Israel—Jacob's well a source
of superstitious dread to the Egyptians—Beautiful moonlight scene—
Moses opens his errand from the Most High—Aaron unfolds the
traditional promises—Unbelieving Hebrews—Terrible means used
for their conviction—Korah persists in unbelief—His punishment
and horror—The assembly dissolves—pp. 504—508.

Moses goes before Pharaoh—Amazement of the Egyptian courtiers—
Harshness of Pharaoh—Moses delivers God's message—Pharaoh
defies the Living God—He is overcome by his emotion, but
hardens his heart—New toils devised for the Hebrews—pp. 509—

The rod! the whip! the cry of the sufferers!—The Hebrews reproach
Moses and Aaron—Moses appeals to the Lord—Seeks to
comfort his brethren with the words of the Most High—Hope dies

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in their hearts—Pharaoh redoubles his worship of all manner of
idols—He curses God—Sacrifices a living Hebrew child to the
Nile—Sacrifices a Nubian slave to Typhon—Invokes his idol-god
against the God of Moses—A secret dread—Children of Israel groan
under oppression—pp.514—522.

Moses and Aaron again seek Pharaoh, and demand the freedom
of Israel—He requires a miracle—Miracle of Moses' rod—Jambres
and Jannes, the magicians—They convert their rods into serpents—
Moses' serpent destroys theirs—The brothers confront the King at
the river's side—He defies their God—The Nile runs blood—Goshen,
the land of the Hebrews, sparkles with clear water—Jambres again
appealed to—The plague of the frogs—Jambres and Jannes produce,
but cannot remove them—Pharaoh relents, and the plague is stayed—
The plague of lice—Jambres and Jannes disgraced—God speaks to
Moses by the well of Jacob—The plague of flies—Pharaoh again
relents—He hardens his heart, and God sends a pestilence upon the
cattle—God again speaks to Moses beside the well—The plague of
boils—Goshen unharmed—God threatens further vegeance upon

Moses denounces the plague of thunder and hail against Egypt—
Grand gathering of the storm of God's anger—The storm hangs
over Goshen but harms it not—The purpose of God in these judgments—
Terror of Pharaoh—Agrees to let Israel go—Scene of desolation
and death—Pharaoh seeks to drown his terror in a banquet—
In his revels curses God—Again refuses to let the people go—He
vacillates—Orders Moses and Aaron to be thrust from the palace—
The plague of the locusts—Despair of the Egyptians—Pharaoh
acknowledges his sin—The plague ceases—Character of Pharaoh—
The plague of darkness—Description of the plague—Pharaoh unequal
to the combat with God—His rage against Moses—Moses
denounces upon Pharaoh God's last and terrible judgment—The
Egyptians deify him—pp.539—558.

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Moses and Aaron call the elders of Israel together—The Passover
instituted—The Hebrews cease work—They all flock to Goshen—
Moses deified by priests in the temples—Hopefulness of the Hebrews—
The sprinkling—Egyptians seek refuge with the Hebrews—
Silence of expectation—Awful vision of the Angel of the Lord in
the Pillar of Fire—A cry from Egypt—Messengers from Pharaoh
to Moses—Amunophis, the son of Pharaoh, slain by the Angel of
the Lord—Egyptians implore Moses to depart—Israel marshalled—
Guided by the Pillar of Fire, the Hebrew host leave Egypt—The
Lamb of God prefigured—Moses explains the lessons of God's judgments—

The departure—Sarcophagus containing the embalmed body of
Joseph—The Shekinah—Succoth—Etham—Pi-hahiroth—Migdol—
Hebrews inclosed between the mountains and the sea—Calm confidence
of Moses—Fulfilment of prophecy—Pharaoh determines to
destroy the entangled Hebrews—Gathers a mighty host and follows
in pursuit—Dismay of the Hebrews—The Egyptian army comes in
sight—The elders reproach Moses—He calls upon God—The Voice
of the Lord—The Pillar of Cloud and the Pillar of Fire—The sea—
Israel in the midst of the sea—The procession—The pursuit—
Frantic terror of Pharaoh and his army—Their destruction—Israel
filled with awe and gratitude—They go into the wilderness—The
bitter waters—Journey abounding in miracles—The rock in Horeb—
God's awful presence on Horeb—Moses disappears in the mount
of God—The people murmur—They demand a god—They sacrifice
to a molten calf—An indignant God!—Terrible vengeance upon
the offenders—Joshua—pp.576—596.


The author to the scholar and critic—pp.597—600.

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Ingraham, J. H. (Joseph Holt), 1809-1860 [1859], The pillar of fire, or, Israel in bondage. (Pudney & Russell [and] H. Dayton, New York) [word count] [eaf611T].
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