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Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880 [1836], Philothea (Otis, Broaders & Co., Boston) [word count] [eaf046].
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Zeus—The Jupiter of the Romans.

Zeus Xenius—Jupiter the Hospitable.



Pallas Athena—An ancient appellation of Minerva, from which
Athens took its name.

Pallas Parthenia—Pallas the Virgin.

Pallas Promachos—Pallas the Defender.

Phœbus—The Apollo of the Romans; the Sun.

Phœbus Apollo—Phœbus the Destroyer, or the Purifier.

Phœbe—Diana; the Moon.


Agrotera—Diana the Huntress.

Orthia—Name of Diana among the Spartans.



Urania—The Heavenly Venus. The same name was applied
to the Muse of Astronomy.






Pandamator—A name of Vulcan, signifying the All-subduing.

Mnemosyne—Goddess of Memory.



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Rhamnusia—Name of a statue of Nemesis, goddess of Vengeance;
so called because it was in the town of Rhamnus.



Taraxippus—A deity whose protection was implored at Elis,
that no harm might happen to the horses.

Erinnys—The Eumenides, or Furies.

Naiades—Nymphs of Rivers, Springs, and Fountains.

Nereides—Nymphs of the Sea.

Oreades—Nymphs of the Mountains.

Dryades—Nymphs of the Woods.

Oromasdes—Persian name for the Principle of Good.

Mithras—Persian name for the Sun.

Arimanius—Persian name for the Principle of Evil.



Cordax—An immodest comic dance.

Agora—A Market House.

Prytaneum—The Town House.

Deigma—A place in the Piræus, corresponding to the modern

Clepsydra—A Water-dial.

Cotylœ—A measure. Some writers say one third of a quart;
others much less.

Arytœna—A small cup.

Arabyllus—A vase, wide at bottom and narrow at top.

Archons—Chief Magistrates of Athens.

Prytanes—Magistrates who presided over the Senate.


Epistates—Chairman, or speaker.

Hippodrome—The Horse-course.

Stadium—Thirty six and a half rods.

Obolus, (plural Oboli)—A small coin, about the value of a

Drachma, (plural Drachmœ)—About ten-pence sterling.

Mina, (plural Minœ)—Four pounds, three shillings, four pence.

Stater—A gold coin; estimated at about twelve shillings, three

Daric—A Persian gold coin, valued one pound, twelve shillings,
three pence.

(All the above coins are estimated very differently by different writers.)

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The midnight procession of the Panathenaia.” p. 11.

This festival in honor of Pallas was observed early in the summer,
every fifth year, with great pomp.

The Sacred Peplus.” p. 12.

This was a white garment consecrated to Pallas, on which the
actions of illustrious men were represented in golden embroidery.

Court of Cynosarges.” p. 13.

Cases of illegitimacy were decided at this court.

Festival of Torches.” p. 15.

In honor of Prometheus. The prize was bestowed on him who
ran the course without extinguishing his torch.

Six months of seclusion within the walls of the Acropolis,
were required of the Canephorœ
.” p. 21.

Maidens of the first families were selected to embroider the sacred
peplus. The two principal ones were called Canephoræ, because
they carried baskets in the Panathenaic procession.

Fountain of Byblis.” p. 32.

This name was derived from a young Ionian, passionately fond
of her brother Caunus, for whom she wept till she was changed into
a fountain, near Miletus.

During the festivities of the Dionysia.” p. 41.

This festival, in honor of Dionysus, was observed with great
splendor. Choragic games are supposed to have been celebrated;
in which prizes were given to the successful competitors in music,
and the drama.

The tuneful sould of Marsyas.” p. 41.

Marsyas was a celebrated musician of Phrygia, generally considered
the inventor of the flute.

Contest between fighting quails.” p. 42.

In Athens, quails were pitched against each other, in the same
manner as game-cocks among the moderns.

I perceived no paintings of those who had been wrecked.” p. 43.

This idea is borrowed; but I cannot remember whence.

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Pericles withdrew a rose from the garland.” p. 43.

This flower was sacred to Silence. The ancients often suspended
it above the table at feasts, to signify that what was said sub
was not to be repeated.

A life-time as long as that conferred upon the namesake of
.” p. 44.

It is related of him, that he asked and obtained the gift of immortality
in this world; but unfortunately forgot to ask for youth and

Eleusinian Mysteries.” p. 45.

Ceremonies at Eleusis, in honor of Demeter, observed with great
secresy. Those who were initiated were supposed to be peculiarly
under the protection of the gods.

The Universal Mind.” p. 46.

Anaxagoras is supposed to have been the first who taught the doctrine
of one God, under the name of One Universal Mind.

Model for the sloping roof of the Odeum.” p. 51.

Pericles was usually represented with a helmet, to cover the deformity
in his skull. It was jestingly said that the model for the
Odeum was from his own head.

Patriotic song of Callistratus.” p. 53.

Translated from the Greek, by the Rt. Rev. G. W. Doane, Bishop
of New-Jersey.

“While our rosy fillets shed,” &c. p. 55.

The 43d Ode of Anacreon. This and other extracts from the
same poet are translated by Thomas Moore, Esq. In the mottoes,
some phrases are slightly altered; not with the hope of improving
them, but merely to adapt them to the chapters.

All ending in ippus and ippides.” p. 59.

Ippus is the Greek for horse. Wealthy Athenians generally belonged
to the equestrian order; to which the same ideas of honor
were attached as to the knights, or cavaliers, of modern times.
Their names often signified some quality of a horse; as Leucippus,
a white horse, &c.

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Describing her pompous sacrifices to Demeter.” p. 47.

None but Greeks were allowed to enter the temple of this goddess.

Urania alone confers the beauty-giving zone.” p. 66.

Urania was the Heavenly Venus, who presided over the pure sentiment
of love, in distinction from Aphrodite, who presided over the
sensual passion.

Temple of Urania in the Gardens.” p. 68.

This was the temple of the Heavenly Venus.

The Pleiades mourning for their lost sister.” p. 71.

One of the stars in the constellation of the Pleiades is said to have
disappeared. They were fabled as seven sisters, and one lost her
place in the sky by marrying a mortal.

More happy than the gods is he.” p. 57.

Second Ode of Sappho, translated by F. Fawkes, Esq.

He clothed the Graces.” p. 58.

Socrates was originally a sculptor. He carved a beautiful group
of the Graces; said to have been the first that were represented with

Too frugal to buy colored robes.” p. 73.

The common people in Athens generally bought white garments,
for the economy of having them dyed when they were defaced.

I am as wakeful as the bird of Pallas.” p. 74.

Owls were sacred to the goddess of wisdom.

A garland fastened with a delicately-carved arrow.” p. 75.

Grecian lovers often chose this beautiful manner of complimenting
the object of their affections.

A humble shrine for a Muse so heavenly.” p. 79.

The name of Urania was applied to the Muse of Astronomy, as
well as to the Heavenly Venus.

Every human being has, like Socrates, an attendant
.” p. 86.

In the Phœdrus of Plato, Socrates is represented as saying,

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“When I was about to cross the river, a demoniacal and usual sign
was given me; and whenever this takes place, it always. prohibits
me from accomplishing what I was about to do. In the present
instance, I seemed to hear a voice, which would not suffer me to
depart till I had made an expiation; as if I had offended in some
particular a divine nature.”

By these expressions, the philosopher probably did not mean
conscience in the usual acceptation of that term; but rather the
inward voice, as believed in by the Mystics, and by the Society of

In ancient times, the word demon was not applied exclusively to
evil spirits. Hesiod says:

“Thrice ten thousand holy demons rove
This breathing world; the immortals sent by Jove.”

His statue stands among the Olympionicœ.” p. 89.

The victors at the Olympic Games had their statues placed in the
groves. These statues were called Olympionicæ.

Count me on the summer trees.” p. 95.

Part of the 14th Ode of Anacreon.

I heard one of the sophists.” p. 104.

Some of the sayings here attributed to the sophists are borrowed
from a source which I have forgotten. My recollections are so confused
that I cannot decide what portions are quoted and what are
not. I remember having read the remark concerning rhetoric's
being the noblest of the arts; and the anecdote of the man who
wished his son to learn to prove that right was wrong, or wrong was
right—only he wanted him to be carefully instructed always to use
this faculty in the right way.

As soon would I league myself with Odomantians.” p. 108.

The Odomantians of Thrace, near the river Strymon, had the
same grasping, avaricious character attributed to the Jews in modern

Concealed their frauds amid the flames of the Treasury.”
p. 109.

The Treasury in Athens was burned to the ground, by the Treasurers,
who took that method to avoid being called to account for the
money they had embezzled.

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When the lake is still they lose their labor.” p. 112.

This comparison is used by Aristophanes.

That comes of having the Helots among them.” p. 113.

The freemen of Sparta were forbidden the exercise of any mechanical
or laborious employment. All these duties devolved upon
the Helots; while their masters spent their time in dancing, feasting,
hunting, and fighting.

He approves the law forbidding masters to bestow
.” p. 113.

There was a Spartan law forbidding masters to emancipate their
slaves. About two thousand, who were enfranchised by a public
decree, for having bravely defended the country during the Peloponessian
war, soon after disappeared suddenly, and were supposed to
have been secretly murdered.

Whip them, merely to remind them of bondage.” p. 113.

The Helots were originally a brave people; but after they were
conquered by the Spartans, no pains were spared to render them
servile and degraded. Once a year they publicly received a severe
flagellation, merely to remind them that they were slaves. They
were never allowed to learn any liberal art, or to sing manly songs.
In order to expose them to greater contempt, they were often obliged
to perform indecent dances, and to get brutally drunk, that their master's
children might learn to despise such uncomely things.

Things as trifling as the turning of a shell.” p. 116.

This was an Athenian proverb, applied to things that were done
quickly, or changed easily.

You must indeed wrestle at Cynosarges.” p. 116.

This was a name of Hercules; and because he was illegitimate,
it was applied to a place near the Lyceum, where those of half
Athenian blood, were wont to exercise in gymnastic sports. Themistocles,
being partly of foreign extraction, induced the young Athenian
nobles to go there and wrestle with him, that the distinction might be
done away.

Festival Anthesteria.” p. 116.

In honor of Dionysus. The best drinker was rewarded with a

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golden crown and a cask of wine; and none but Athenians were
allowed to enter the theatre.

Chap. X. p. 118.

Scholars will say this trial ought to have been before the Areopagus.
But I was induced to choose popular assemblies, for the sake
of more freedom of description, and to avoid a repetition of what has
been so often described. There was a law in Athens, by which it
was decreed that all who taught new doctrines concerning the gods
were to be tried by the people; but of the date of this law, I am

Solon provided four assemblies. The First approved or rejected
magistrates, heard catalogues of confiscations and fines, and received
accusations from the thesmothetæ archons. The Second received
petitions relative to public and private concerns. The Third gave
audience to foreign powers. The Fourth managed religious matters.

Cleon arose.” p. 119.

Cleon was a tanner; a violent enemy of Pericles.

Which he inscribed Demus.” p. 125.

A phrase signifying the People, or the Democracy.

Pericles was zealously assisted by Clinias.” p. 127.

The Clinias here mentioned was not the father of Alcibiades;
though perhaps a relative.

Sing their welcome to Ornithiœ.” 129.

This name was applied to a wind that blew in the spring, at the
time when the birds began to return. It was a Grecian custom for
children to go about with garlands from door to door, singing a welcome
to the swallows, and receiving trifling presents in return.

The marble sent by Darius.” p. 130.

The Persians were so confident of victory that they brought with
them marble to erect a trophy on the plains of Marathon. From
this marble Phidias sculptured a statue of Vengeance, which was
called Rhamnusia.

Filled my pillow with fresh laurel leaves.” p. 137.

Phœbus was supposed to inspire dreams and prophecy; and the
laurel, which was sacred to him, was supposed to be endowed with
similar properties.

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Like one returned from the cave of Trophonius.”p. 141.

In this cave was a celebrated oracle. Those who entered it always
returned pale and dejected.

Psyche bending over the sleeping Eros.” p. 143.

This beautiful fable represents the union of the human soul with
immortal love. Psyche was warned that separation would be the
consequence, if she looked on the countenance of her divine lover.
She gazed on his features as he slept; and was left to sorrow alone.

Even the Diasia are no longer observed.” p. 148.

Festivals in honor of Zeus, because he delivered men from misfortunes
and dangers.

When the Muses and the Charities inhabit the same
.” p. 153.

Among the Greeks, the Graces were called the Charities. It
was a beautiful idea thus to deify the moral, rather than the outward
graces; and to represent innocent and loving nymphs, forever hand
in hand, presiding over kind and gentle actions. The Graces were
often worshipped in the same temple with the Muses.

Olive garlands suspended on the doors.” p. 77.

This was a common practice during the festival of Thargelia, in
honor of Phæbus.

Gently touched the back part of his head with a small
.” p. 194.

That the phenomena of animal magnetism were not entirely unknown
to the ancients, appears by what Clearchus relates of an experiment
tried in the presence of Aristotle. He speaks of a man
who, by means of “a soul-attracting wand,” let the soul out of a
sleeping lad, and left the body insensible. When the soul was
again led into the body, it related all that had happened to it.

The laws of the country made it impossible to accompany her
beloved husband
.” p. 198.

No woman was allowed to enter Olympia, during the celebration
of the games.

Deemed he had fallen by the dart of Phæbus Apollo.” p. 200.

Those who died very suddenly were supposed to have been
struck with the arrows of Phœbus, or his sister.

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Three days and three nights Paralus remained in complete
.” p. 200.

It is related of Cleonymus, the Athenian, that when laid out to be
buried, his mother thought she discovered faint symptoms of life.
He afterward revived, and told many wonderful things he had seen
and heard. There was likewise one Eurynous, who came to life
after he had been buried fifteen days.

Its best pleasures are like the gardens of Adonis.” p. 204.

When the annual procession formed to mourn the death of
Adonis, earth was placed in shells, and lettuce planted in it, in commemoration
of Adonis laid out on a bed of lettuces. These shells
were called the Gardens of Adonis. Their freshness soon withered,
on account of the shallowness of the earth.

Dressed in white, with a wreath of roses.” p. 218.

When persons of worth and character died, and when the young
departed, garlands were often used as emblems of joyfulness. An
old Greek poet says:

“Not that we less compassionate have grown,
Do we at funerals our temples crown,
Or with sweet essences adorn our hair,
And all the marks of pleasing transport wear;
'Tis that we're sure of that more happy state
To which friendly death doth their souls translate.”

With regard to the white garments, I have probably departed
from ancient customs, for the sake of investing death with cheerfulness.

Rather gain one prize from the Choragus than ten from the
.” p. 211.

The first presided over musical and literary competition; the last
over athletic games.

The statue of Persephone, (that ominous bridal gift.”) p. 218.

While Persephone was gathering flowers, she was seized by
Pluto, and carried to the regions of the dead, over which she presided.
Hence the hair of the deceased was consecrated to her, and
her name invoked at funerals.

Mibra sneezed aloud.” p. 219.

This was considered a lucky omen; particularly if the sound
came from the direction of the right hand.

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He will trust to Hermes to help him.” p. 231.

Hermes was the god of lies and fraud.

Have I told you all my flames.” p. 232.

Part of the 14th Ode of Anacreon.

Threatened to appeal to the magistrates for another
.” p. 217.

The Athenian slave laws were much more mild than modern
codes. If a servant complained of being abused, his master had no
power to retain him.

Build the wall of Hipparchus.” p. 241.

A wall built round the Academia by Hipparchus was so expensive
that it became a proverb applied to all costly undertakings.

One of the slaves whose modesty Alcibiades had insulted.”
p. 241.

Slaves that were either personally abused, or insulted, took refuge
in the Temple of Theseus, and could not be compelled to return to
those of whom they complained.

These brooks are Creusa's tears.” p. 244.

Ion was the son of Phæbus and Creusa. His mother, to avoid
her father's displeasure, concealed the birth of the infant, and hid
him in the grotto, which afterward bore her name. The child was
preserved, and brought up in the temple of Phæbus.

She does not speak like one brought up at the gates.” p. 245.

The lower classes of tradesmen were generally placed near the

One of the illustrious Pasargadæ.” p. 269.

These were the noblest familes in Persia.

In some unimportant matters, I have not adhered strictly to dates;
deeming this an allowable freedom in a work so purely romantic,
relating to times so ancient.

I am aware that the Christian spirit is sometimes infused into a
Grecian form; and in nothing is this more conspicuous than the
representation of love as a pure sentiment rather than a gross

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Greek names for the deities were used in preference to the Roman,
because the latter have become familiarized by common and
vulgar use.

If there be errors in the application of Greek names and phrases,
my excuse must be an entire want of knowledge in the classical
languages. But, like the ignoramus in the Old Drama, I can boast,
“Though I speak no Greek, I love the sound on't.”

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Child, Lydia Maria Francis, 1802-1880 [1836], Philothea (Otis, Broaders & Co., Boston) [word count] [eaf046].
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